Many objects and substances that we use in everyday life can be considered dangerous goods: perfumes, cell phones, cosmetics, flavorings, detergents, medical equipment, etc., therefore it is important to know the regulations and rules that must be followed for transportation, handling and storage.
In accordance with the IATA regulations and the IMDG Code, dangerous goods are articles or substances that, during their transportation, may jeopardize health, safety, property, the environment, other goods and even the same means of transportation, for therefore, they require special handling that reduces risk and guarantees security in the supply chain.
Dangerous goods are classified according to their nature into 9 risk classes:
Substances and objects that pose a mass explosion hazard.
Substances and objects that represent a projection hazard without danger of mass explosion.
Substances and articles that represent a fire hazard and a minor explosion hazard or a minor projection hazard, or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Substances and objects that do not represent appreciable danger.
Very insensitive substances that present a mass explosion hazard.
Extremely insensitive objects that do not present a mass explosion hazard.
Substances that at 50ºC have a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa (3.0 bar) or are completely gaseous at 20ºC at a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa (1.01 bar).
Division 2.1 - Flammable gases.
Gases that, at 20 ºC and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa (1.01 bar), are flammable
a) When in a mixture of 13% or less by volume or less by volume with air; or
b) Has a flammability range in air of at least 12%, regardless of the lower flammability limit
Division 2.2 - Non-flammable, non-toxic gases.
a) They are suffocating - gases that dilute or displace the oxygen normally found in the atmosphere; or
b) They are oxidizers - gases that can, generally releasing oxygen, cause or facilitate, more than air, the combustion of other substances.
c) They are not included in the other divisions.
Division 2.3 - Toxic gases.
a) They are known to be toxic or corrosive to humans to the point of endangering health; or
b) It is presumed that they are toxic or corrosive to humans because they have an LC50 value equal to or less than 5.0000 mL / m3 (ppm).Clase 3 Líquidos inflamables
This class has no subdivisions, it includes liquids, liquid mixtures or liquids that contain solids in solution or suspension, (for example: paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc., but they do not include substances classified otherwise according to their dangerous characteristics ), which release flammable vapors at temperatures not exceeding 60ºC in a closed crucible or 65ºC in an open crucible, normally called a flash point.
Substances that may undergo spontaneous combustion: Substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Flammable solids, spontaneously reacting substances and polymerizing and explosive substances desensitized solids.
Solids that under the conditions that may be encountered during transport are easily combustible or can cause or contribute to fire through friction; spontaneously reacting substances and polymerizing substances, capable of undergoing a strong exothermic reaction; desensitized explosive that can explode if not sufficiently diluted, this division includes:
a) Flammable solids
b) Spontaneously reactive substances
c) Solid desensitized explosives
d) Polymerizing substances
Substances that can undergo spontaneous combustion., Substances that are capable of spontaneously heating under normal conditions of transport or can become hot on contact with air and can then catch fire.
The following types of substances are classified in this division:
a) Pyrophoric substances
b) Substances prone to spontaneous heating.
Substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (Dangerous when wet), substances that in contact with water are capable of spontaneous ignition or release flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
This class is divided into two divisions.
Substances that, without being necessarily combustible by themselves, can, generally by releasing oxygen, cause or promote the combustion of other materials, which may be contained in an object.
5.2 Organic Peroxides.
This division is made up of organic substances which contain the viable structure -O-O and can be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, in which one or both hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals.
Organic peroxides are thermally instable substances that can decompose in an auto-accelerated and exothermic way. Apart from this, they can have one or more of the following properties.
a) Be susceptible to explosive decomposition
b) Burn quickly
c) Be sensitive to impact or friction
d) Reacting dangerously with other substances
e) Causing damage to the eyes
Toxic or infectious substances
This class is divided into two divisions:
Division 6.1 - Toxic Substances.
Substances capable of causing death or damaging human health if swallowed, inhaled or come into contact with the skin.
Division 6.2 - Infectious substances.
Substances that are known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens.
Pathogenic germs are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickets, fungi) and other agents such as prions which can cause disease in humans or animals.
Infectious substances are divided into:
An infectious substance that is transported in a way that, when exposure occurs, is capable of causing permanent disability, life-threatening, or causing fatal disease in humans or animals, which would otherwise be healthy.
An infectious substance that does not meet the inclusion criteria in category "A"
Infectious substances of category “B” should be assigned to UN number 3373 and their appropriate shipping name should be: “Biological substance, category B”.
Clase 7 Radioactive
Any material containing radio nuclides in which both the concentration and the total activity of the shipment exceed the values specified in table 10.3.2 of the IGR DGR regulation.
In accordance with the DGR IATA regulations the following materials are not considered within this category and can be handled as excepted.
a) Radioactive material implanted or incorporated into the body of a person or living animal for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment.
b) The radioactive material present on the surface or lower body of a person who must be transferred to receive medical treatment because he has been the object of accidental or deliberate ingestion of radioactive materials or contamination, taking into account the necessary measures to protect against radiation from other passengers or crew members, subject to operator approval.
c) Radioactive material in consumer articles that have received the approval of the competent regulatory body in relation to their sale to the end user.
d) Natural material and minerals that contain radio nuclides (which may have been subjected to treatment), provided that the concentration of the activity of the materials does not exceed 10 times the values expressed in Table 10.3.A of the DGR IATA regulations. or calculated in accordance with the provisions of table 10.3.A of the same regulation.
Corrosive substances are substances that, due to their chemical action, cause irreversible skin lesions or that, if an escape occurs, can cause considerable damage to other merchandise or to means of transport.
For substances that and mixtures that are corrosive to the skin, the general classification provisions are provided in section 3.8.2 of the IATA DGR regulation., Skin corrosion refers to the formation of irreversible skin damage, such as visible necrosis through the epidermis, which occurs after exposure to a substance or mixture.
Liquids and solids that may melt during transport that are not considered to cause skin corrosion will continue to be taken into account due to the ability of certain metals to corrode the surface according to the criteria in table 22.214.171.124.3 (b) of the IATA DGR regulation.
Various dangerous substances and articles, including substances dangerous for the environment.
In this class, all products and substances or mixtures of substances are included which, during transportation, present a hazard not covered in the 8 previous risk classes and their subdivisions.